- In 1999, 47 000 tubal occlusions and 65 000 vasectomies was performed in England.
- Both women and men have access to sterilization. Consent is only necessary from the patient.
- Female contraceptives are meant to empower women, to maximise their choices and to give them control over their fertility, and thus their lives.
- Information on other long acting contraceptives should be provided, including failure rates.
- Spousal consent is not required for sterilisation.
- Prior sanction by a high court judge should be sought in all cases of sterilisation when there is doubt over mental capacity to consent.
- Full consent requires that patients should be informed that reversal operations, IVF and ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injections) are rarely provided by the NHS.
- Each person has autonomy over their own body.
- All reproductive issues, including abortion, contraception and sterilization can be performed over the objection of the spouse.
- Female sterilization is safe, simple and very effective surgical procedure.
- Surgery to reverse sterilization is difficult and has a low success rate. Further pregnancy has a higher risk of ectopics.
- Sterilization should thus be considered permanent.
- Decision should thus be made by the woman based on voluntary informed choice and should not be made under duress.
- Similarly the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stated that, "no incentives should be given to promote or discourage any particular decisions regarding sterilization".
- Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology guidelines state that women under the age of 30 (or those without children) should be counselled in case of later regret.
- Care should be actioned in women who have recently experienced a loss in relationship, or during pregnancy.
- Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008
- The Parental Orders (Human Fertilisation and Embryology) Regulations 2010
- Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985 (c.49)
- Bromham DR, Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 12 (8) 1995 "Surrogacy: Ethical, Legal, and Social Aspects"
- Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists: Male and Female sterilisation Guidelines 2004
- Recommendations on Ethical Issues in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO 2000)